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We offer in vivo pharmacology studies in animal models to mimic conditions of the human eye.

Primed has a large NHP population (n= ~3000) with both spontaneous and induced ocular models including Choroidal neovascularization (CNV), Glaucoma, Glaucomatous neurodegeneration, BRVO, Retinal detachment, Uveitis, Optic neuropathy, Macular edema, Geographic atrophy (Dry-AMD) and Corneal neovascularization. Primed provides advanced pharmacology/efficacy, PK/toxicology services for new ocular drug evaluation. Our goal is to provide the best data to help our clients to make the best decisions.
Primed offers in vivo animal models. The kinds of them are natural occurring NHP model– the largest number on the market – to mimic conditions of the human eye. Not only do we help clients select the appropriate in vivo efficacy model, but we can also develop new animal models as needed, according to the specific requirements of our clients.
We use state-of-the-art ocular technology, including OCT, confocal microscopy, tomography, electroretinography, etc. To demonstrate the efficacy of particular ophthalmic drugs or devices.

Imaging Capability

-- Extensive OCT and FP experience.
-- Heidelberg Spectralis plus OCT.
-- Kowa Fundus Camera.
-- Fluorescence Angiography.
-- Roland Electroretinogram.
-- Imaging team with 10 employees (>3-yrs).
-- OCT focusing on retinal thickness, cyst and fluid, drusen.
-- Retinal thickness analysis: thickness Map, point counting.
-- FP focusing on retinal exudate, hemorrhage, morphological changes of vessels, optic nerve by SIVA software.

Natural occurring NHP model

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR)

The diabetic macular edema (DME) is the one of the major causes of visual loss in the world today. OCT and Fundus Photography (FP) are the most important tools in ophthalmology. The nonhuman primate model is the highest transnational models for novel drug development for which replicates the human ophthalmic pathologies including retinal thickening, cyst and fluid, hemorrhage, and morphological changes of vessels, optic nerve, etc.

-- Set up 500 monkeys (7-22 years, longest duration of T2DM: 8 years, follow-up in 100 monkeys) OCT and FP database.
-- 106 eyes from 70 monkeys with clinical or subclinical diabetic retinopathy.
-- OCT and FP examination and analysis collaborated with Dr. Timothy Kern's team of Case Western Reserve University.

Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among aged people in developed countries. The formation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is responsible for severe central vision loss associated with neovascular AMD. PriMed Shines has both spontaneous dry AMD and laser-induced CNV NHP models.

-- Set up monkeys (17-22 years) OCT and FP database.
-- OCT and FP examination and analysis collaborated with Dr. Timothy Kern's team of Case Western Reserve University.

Choroidal Neovascularization

-- Laser induced CNV
-- Validated with Lucentis and Avastin
-- OCT, Fluorescence Angiography and histopathological analysis were used for outcomes measurement


Glaucoma is a group of diseases that damage the eye’s optic nerve and can result in vision loss and blindness.

Ocular Hypertension

-- Tonometry is used for eye pressure test in Primed Shines.
-- Cup/Disc ratio tested by OCT is used in Primed Shines.

A cataract is any cloudiness or opacity of the natural lens of the eye, which is normally crystal clear.

54 eyes of 30 monkeys with cataract have been found.

Ocular Toxicology
Ocular Pharmacokinetics
Pigment layer degeneration

Induced Model

Choroidal neovascularization (CNV)
Optic neuropathy